Gastropoda | Littorinimorpha
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 1 m (Ref. 83435). Tropical; 32°N - 27°N, 97°E - 0°E (Ref. 83435)
Western Central Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 4.1 cm ShL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435)
This amphi-Atlantic species is geographically isolated from its Indo-Pacific congeners, but like them, this species exhibits a wide variation in shell shape and structure as well as color which is attributed to effects of changes in its habitat (notably water temperature and currents) and possible stress from desiccation (Ref. 84131). Occurs exclusively in mangrove swamps of the Atlantic and the Caribbean Seas. It is an ovoviviparous species with planktotrophic larval stage (8-10 weeks) and the adult snails inhabiting the supralittoral zone on trunks, roots, stems and leaves of mangrove trees, usually Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia spp. Feeds on epiphytic algae and marine fungi (Ref. 84131).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
The species displays poecilogonony as its reproductive strategy.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum. 2005. (Ref. 19)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
): 23.3 - 26.1, mean 24.1 (based on 92 cells).