Cephalopoda | Oegopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 275). Tropical, preferred 21°C (Ref. 107945); 70°N - 26°N, 81°W - 2°W (Ref. 275)
Atlantic Ocean: British Isles north to Iceland and Greenland.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 27.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 31 cm ML (female)
Maximum mantle length is 31cm (females) and 27cm (males) in the northern part of its distributional range, but 20 cm (females) and 18cm (males) in the southern part (Ref. 3722).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings, species profile | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.3-2.5).
): 0.7 - 11.5, mean 6.4 (based on 424 cells).
Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 126 [75, 177] mg/100g; Iron = 4.79 [1.67, 7.92] mg/100g; Protein = 15.5 [13.7, 17.4] %; Omega3 = 0.414 [0.262, 0.566] g/100g; Selenium = 57.8 [48.5, 67.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 1.97 [0.92, 3.02] mg/100g (wet weight).