Gastropoda | Lepetellida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 2754). Subtropical, preferred 19°C (Ref. 107945); 50°N - 9°N, 32°W - 36°E (Ref. 99669)
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: North to the Channel Islands, south to Guinea, including Azores, Canary and Cape Verde Islands, and east to the Mediterranean. Introduced in Ireland and Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea in Israel.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 4.9, range 4 - 5.4 cm Max length : 12.3 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 99669); common length : 8.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 438); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 99669)
Collected from the sublittoral zone, from low tide up to a depth of 200 m (Ref. 2754). Offshore (Ref. 438). Collected from the supralittoral and mediolittoral or intertidal zones (Ref. 2754).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gonochoric; broadcast spawners (males release first before the females). Spawning occurs from spring to late autumn.
Demir, M. 2003. (Ref. 2754)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.27-0.4; tm=3; tmax=15).
): 7 - 18.6, mean 10.5 (based on 572 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 126 [75, 177] mg/100g; Iron = 4.79 [1.67, 7.92] mg/100g; Protein = 15.9 [14.8, 16.9] %; Omega3 = 0.331 [0.263, 0.400] g/100g; Selenium = 57.8 [48.5, 67.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 1.97 [0.92, 3.02] mg/100g (wet weight).