Polychaeta | Phyllodocida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 587 m (Ref. 107222). Subtropical; 73°N - 27°S, 23°W - 147°E
Northeast Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Indo-West Pacific.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 7.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882)
Species' maximum length from the Belgian part of the North Sea (Ref. 7882). Inhabits sandy bottoms (Ref. 2780). Found mainly along the near-coastal zone, sporadically in the open sea, in fine to coarse sediment (Ref. 7882). Immature individuals are predators waiting for their prey while resting in their burrows or constructed tubes (Ref. 107221).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults.
Gusso, C.C., M.F. Gravina and F.R. Maggiore. 2001. (Ref. 2780)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
): 4.6 - 15.1, mean 9.4 (based on 542 cells).