Aves | Anseriformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 83519), usually 0 - 3 m (Ref. 115862). Temperate; 84°N - 35°N, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 124582)
Pacific Ocean and Northern Atlantic and the Arctic: Alaska, Canada, Russia and USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965); max. published weight: 648.50 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 2.65 cm; tarsus: 3.495 cm; wing: 22.0 cm.
Maximum common depth based on occurrence (Ref. 115862). To be replaced with a better reference. Primarily lives in coastal marine waters approximately 9 months in a year. During breeding season, it frequents shallow wetlands towards the edge of the boreal forest; while non-breeding birds use deeper ponds, lakes and nearshore marine areas. Winter along the Pacific coast from the Bering Sea to as far as California; and some from Alaska may reach the northern Bering Sea across to Russia Foraging behavior involves diving and swimming underwater up to a depth of less than 9 meters. This duck has been recorded to dive up to 60 meters (Ref. 83519). Common diving depth is 2-3 m (9-10 ft) (Ref. 115862).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sea Duck Joint Venture. 2003. (Ref. 83519)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
): 0.4 - 14, mean 6 (based on 3047 cells).