Bivalvia | Cardiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 10 - 237 m (Ref. 116516). Polar; 82°N - 33°N, 179°W - 174°E
Arctic, Northern Pacific and Northern Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 7.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 95344)
Maximum depth from Ref. 117328. Depth estimate based on Family (Ref. 108635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Piepenburg, D., N.V. Chernova, C.F. von Dorrien, J. Gutt, A.V. Neyelov, E. Rachor, L. Saldanha and M.K. Schmid. 1996. (Ref. 2952)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.06-0.18).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).