Bivalvia | Venerida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 10 - 180 m (Ref. 113223). Subtropical, preferred 9°C (Ref. 107945); 53°N - 27°N, 32°W - 36°E (Ref. 114316)
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 11.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 109255); max. reported age: 40 years (Ref. 8702)
An active suspension feeder (Ref. 96376). Infaunal, found on sandy substrates (Ref. 113223).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Gaspar, M.B., M.N. Santos, P. Vasconcelos and C.C. Monteiro. 2002. (Ref. 2736)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21-0.38; tmax=40).
): 10.8 - 21.5, mean 18.7 (based on 822 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Very high vulnerability (77 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 149 [71, 228] mg/100g; Iron = 8.53 [1.95, 15.11] mg/100g; Protein = 9.88 [8.64, 11.12] %; Omega3 = 0.313 [0.202, 0.423] g/100g; Selenium = 61 [50, 72] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 2.04 [0.56, 3.51] mg/100g (wet weight).