Polychaeta | Aciculata
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 10 - 165 m (Ref. 2664). Polar
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults.
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17).
): -1.3 - 3.1, mean 0 (based on 8 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).